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oxidation states periodic table

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Disproportionation. Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. For example: Scandium has one unpaired electron in the d-orbital. I would be interested to make the Spanish version of THIS TABLE and return it to you if you give the source file. If the oxidation state increases the substance is oxidised If the oxidation state decreases the substance is reduced. The most obvious of these from an outward perspective is colour, ably illustrated by the d block elements. […], Explorations of everyday chemical compounds, on The Periodic Table of Oxidation States, This Week in Chemistry – A Liquid with Holes in, & Why Spider Webs Stay Sticky, This Week in Chemistry – Molecular ‘Nanosubmarines’, & Animal Navigation Proteins, explained in a previous post on the site here. The oxidation numbers of all the atoms in a neutral compound add up to zero. The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom. Oxidation number of element in a compound can be positive or negative or may be zero. As the table shows, the presence of the other oxidation states varies, but follows some patterns. The oxidation number refers to the electrical charge of an atom. The Periodic Table of Oxidation States. This table also contains the element number, element symbol, element name and atomic weights of each element. I sent you an e-mail with the typos of the Spanish translation, have you got it? Note: It has been pointed out to me that there are a handful of obscure compounds of the elements sodium to caesium where the metal forms a negative ion - for example, Na-.That would give an oxidation state of -1. For example, sodium (Na) can lose an electron to form sodium ions (Na+). Most of these have a handful of common oxidation states, and this are distinguished by their different colours. Redox reaction with iron. Consider supporting Compound Interest on Patreon, and get previews of upcoming posts & more! The lowest known oxidation state is −4, for carbon in CH 4 (methane). Most don’t exist for more than a fraction of a second and don’t seem to parallel those just above in the table. Common oxidation states. Except for metal hydrides the oxidation number of hydrogen +1. “Fe2+ ion, or lose three electrons to form the Fe3+ ion. In case of halides, manganese doesn’t exhibit +7 oxidation state, however MnO 3 F is known.Cu +2 (aq) is known to be more stable than Cu + (aq) as the Δ hyd H of Cu +2 is more than Cu +, which compensates for the second ionisation enthalpy of Cu. […] Your challenge now is to make a better battery based on fruits or vegetables. Hydrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 1 which means there are 1 protons and 1 electrons in the atomic structure the chemical symbol for hydrogen is h. Shouldn’t that be “+2 & +3 respectively”? Periodic Table of the Elements - Oxidation Numbers. Are you interested? Halogens, on the other hand, have an oxidation state of -1. information of oxidation numbers of monoatomic ions in periodic table. 2. You’re correct that most of them exist for a very limited amount of time, but even with these short lifespans, some compounds have been able to be generated (often with halogens). The oxidation number of an uncombined atom is always zero. Module contains classes presenting Element and Species (Element + oxidation state) and PeriodicTable. This periodic table contains the oxidation numbers of the elements. $\endgroup$ – user22323 Sep 28 '13 at 11:49 They are as follows. Unusual oxygen oxidation states. For example, all of the halogens in Group 17 will have the n s 2 n p 5 configuration–only the values of … Oxidation State of Group 16. There are a whole host of periodic tables out there, and I’ve already added to the pile with a periodic table of data previously. 2. Uncombined elements have an oxidation state of 0. Best regards, Amarashiki. Monoatomic Ions Oxidation Numbers Oxidation state 0 occurs for all elements – it is simply the element in its elemental form. Typically, this relates to the number of electrons that must be gained (negative oxidation number) or lost (positive oxidation number) for the atom's valence electron shell to be filled or half-filled. Created Date: For non-chemists, it’s probably worth clarifying exactly what we mean by ‘oxidation state’. The above image in a 1920x1080 PNG format can be downloaded as a wallpaper for PCs, Macintosh or mobile devices here. If you mean "the oxidation state +2 is stable for the elements of the alkali metals" then the statement is not correct. The sum of the oxidation states within a compound or ion must equal the overall charge. The most common oxidation states are in bold text and predicted or unconfirmed states are in italics. The sum of all of the oxidation states of the various elements in a compound should be zero. Interactive periodic table showing names, electrons, and oxidation states. pymatgen.core.periodic_table module¶. Removing negative charges from an atom results, therefore, in a positive oxidation state. Group 16 belongs to the p-block of the periodic table as their last electron enters in the p orbital. This periodic table contains the atomic number, element symbol, element name, atomic weights and oxidation numbers. The most common oxidation states of the first series of transition metals are given in the table below. The voltage was 0.75 V, close to what it was before, but the current was only 0.1 mA. Oxidation Numbers of Elements in Periodic Table | s,p,d blocks. Oxidation state trends in periodic table. For example, iron common has an oxidation number of +2 or +3. Oxidizing and reducing agents. Most transition metals form more than one oxidation state. $\endgroup$ – bobthechemist Sep 27 '13 at 20:04 $\begingroup$ @bobthechemist no , i mean that the oxidation states +1 and + 2 are stable for the alkali and the alkali earth metals respectively . class DummySpecie (symbol: str = 'X', oxidation_state: Optional [float] = 0, properties: dict = None) [source] ¶. […] How It's Made: Beer. Hydrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 1 which means there are 1 protons and 1 electrons in the atomic structure.The chemical symbol for Hydrogen is H. With a standard atomic weight of circa 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Our experience with the supersize cell also indicates that the size of the electrodes matters. With a chlorine ion (a chlorine atom that has gained one electron, Cl–), the oxidation number would be –1. Bold numbers represent the more common oxidation states. There’s certainly scope for a future post explaining oxidation states, and how to work them out, in more detail! She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Because these same elements forming a chemical bondwith electronegativity difference zero. The Periodic Table of Oxidation States. Our lemon batteries used zinc and copper as electrodes. 5. These have oxidation numbers of +2 & +3 respectively. Disproportionation. You can try other metals. Of course, the copyright/copyleft would you remain to you. In binary compounds1 the element with greater electronegativity2is assigned a negative oxidation number. In almost all cases, oxygen atoms have oxidation numbers of -2. The number of each element corresponds to the number of protons in its nucleus (which is the same as the number of electrons orbiting that nucleus). In a chemical reaction if there is an increase in oxidation state then it is known as oxidation whereas if there is a decrease in oxidation state, it is known as reduction. Should be fixed now. Atoms of the same element with different oxidation states can have different properties. I presume you’re referring to around lawrencium onwards here, as some of the elements after uranium (e.g. Similarly, adding electrons results in a negative oxidation state. Fantastic graphic. This applies regardless of the structure of the element: Xe, Cl 2, S 8, and large structures of carbon or silicon each have an oxidation state of zero. Rule 2 You can ignore these if you are doing chemistry at A level or its equivalent. It’s fixed on the larger image and PDF now . The graphic in this article is licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-37466-1_8, http://www.researchgate.net/publication/228964361_Physico-chemical_Characterization_of_Seaborgium_as_Oxide_Hydroxide, https://www-alt.gsi.de/informationen/wti/library/scientificreport2000/Chemistry/9/r_eichler_jb2000.pdf, https://www-alt.gsi.de/documents/DOC-2003-Jun-29-2.pdf. EDIT: This table has been updated to include corrections in the atomic masses of iron and gallium. Introduction to redox reactions. Similarly, iron (Fe) can lost two electrons to form the Fe2+ ion, or lose three electrons to form the Fe3+ ion. The table was made primarily using InDesign. The graphics you obtain here is not the Oxidation State Table…Check it! Bases: pymatgen.core.periodic_table.DummySpecies This maps the historical grammatically inaccurate … Some elements in the periodic table have only one oxidation number or two oxidation numbers. Rules to determine oxidation states. Look up chemical element names, symbols, atomic masses and other properties, visualize trends, or even test your elements knowledge by playing a periodic table game! The graphic in this article is licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. plutonium) have well-known oxidation states. Oxidation states show how oxidised or reduced an element is within a compound or ion. What is the correlation between the atomic number and the X-ray spectrum? Should be gained instead of lost an electron I think…. It’s essentially a number assigned to an element in a compound, and (at a basic level) denotes the number of electrons that have been either removed from or added to that element. 4. All of the non-metals in the table, on the other hand, have at least one common negative oxidation state. Thanks for the spot, now corrected. It is added to the 2 electrons of the s-orbital and therefore the oxidation state … If your only experience of chemistry is from back in school, you might remember the concept of ions – atoms that have gained or lost electrons to form positively or negatively charged ions. Elements of group 16 are oxygen(O), Sulphur(S), Selenium(Se), Tellurium(Te) and … Now, you can use periodic table trends to predict the most common element charges. Interactive periodic table with up-to-date element property data collected from authoritative sources. Visualize trends, 3D orbitals, isotopes, and mix compounds. It should! The above table can be used to conclude that boron (a Group III element) will typically have an oxidation state of +3, and nitrogen (a group V element) an oxidation state of -3. It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. Bold numbers represent the more common oxidation states. I’d love to download the pdf but the link takes me to another info-graphic? Balancing redox equations. Those rules and some examples for oxidation states are given below. Today’s post is another variation on the theme: a periodic table showing the possible and common oxidation states of every element. You’re welcome. Let me know :). I was looking for one of these last week, out of interest, and couldn’t find one that presented the information in an easy-to-comprehend manner. Balancing redox equations. The oxidation number of a monatomic ion is equal to the charge of the ion. Certainly should. In sodium compounds, sodium only forms +1 oxidation number. You may use the whole fruit, as we did with our lemon battery, or use just the juice, as we did with the Supersized Cell. Color Periodic Table of the Elements - Valence Charge, Printable Periodic Table of the Elements With Valence Charges, Color Periodic Table of the Elements With Charges, Periodic Table of the Elements - Accepted Atomic Masses, Assigning Oxidation States Example Problem, Here's How to Download the Periodic Table With Electron Configurations, Color Periodic Table of the Elements: Atomic Masses, Printable Periodic Table and Periodic Table Wallpaper, The Difference Between Oxidation State and Oxidation Number, Transition Metals and the Properties of the Element Group, Identifying Element Blocks on the Periodic Table, Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College. See the site’s content usage guidelines. Oxidation state of all the elements in the periodic table refer to chart below for oxidation state trend in the periodic table of elements. This periodic table in PDF format can be downloaded from here. The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of elements, arranges the chemical elements such as hydrogen, silicon, iron, and uranium according to their recurring properties. Higher oxidation states are shown by chromium, manganese and cobalt. Clearly had a bit of a mare writing (and proof-reading that paragraph)… Now fixed. Some oxidation states, however, are more common than others. In the meantime, you can grab a PDF download of this graphic below, or purchase it as a poster here. Fully descriptive writeups. The atom of the diatomic molecules like hydrogen, chlorine, oxygen, etc and metallic element like zinc, copper, sodium, etc is assigned zero oxidation number. Oxidation state trends in periodic table. Values in italics represent theoretical or unconfirmed oxidation numbers. 1. This color periodic table contains the number, symbol, name, atomic mass and oxidation states of each element. The oxidation number of an atom is zero in a neutral substance that contains atoms of only one element. It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. I have a question…Did you make that table with laTeX…I have my own periodic table, English and Spanish, based on aTikz file I found in the we. However, there’s not a lot of text that needs translating, so if you’re able to send across the translated text (you can get in contact via the about page) then I could look at plugging it in to create a Spanish version. The oxidation state of an atom is not regarded as the real charge of the atom. 2. This table also contains the element number, element symbol, element name and atomic weights of each element. ; When oxygen is part of a peroxide, its oxidation number is -1. . Rule 1. This periodic table contains the oxidation numbers of the elements. An atom of an element in a compound will have a positive oxidation state if it has had electrons removed. ; The sum of the oxidation states of all the atoms or ions in a neutral compound is zero. Efforts to explain the apparent pattern in this table ultimately fail for a … This is the currently selected item. Redox reaction with iron. Staring at circles all evening yesterday has clearly fried my brain! KEY. The oxidation state of an atom is calculated under seven rules. To try to solve that, I made the table you can see at the top of the post here. Oxidation states, called oxidation grades by Friedrich Wöhler in 1835, were one of the … It’s likely they have other stable oxidation states too, but of course the chemistry it’s possible to do with them is much more limited due to their short-lived nature. However, most metals are capable of multiple oxidation states. The oxidation state of an element is always zero. The oxidation numb… Rules for oxidation numbers: 1. Periodic Table of the Elements C 12.011 –4 +2 +4 6 2-4 Atomic Mass Symbol Atomic Number Electron Configuration Selected Oxidation States Relative atomic masses are based on 12 C = 12.000 Note: Mass numbers in parentheses are mass numbers of the most stable or common isotope. Group I (alkali metals) carry a +1 charge, Group II (alkaline earths) carry a +2, Group VII (halogens) carry -1, and Group VIII (noble gases) carry a 0 charge. The more electropositive element receives a positive oxidation number. Oxidizing and reducing agents. Practice determining oxidation states. The atoms in a periodic table family or group (a vertical column of elements) will all have the same valence (outer) electron configurations with respect to the subshells involved. . Values in italics represent theoretical or unconfirmed oxidation numbers. The corrected table can be found here. Stability of oxidation states. You really know the oxidation states of the elements far past Uranium? A color version of this periodic table and additional downloadable periodic tables for wallpapers or printing can be found here. An element that is not combined with any other different elements has an oxidation state of 0, because it has had no electrons added or removed. I pretty sure that Thorium main oxidation state is IV but I might be wrong ^^, You’re not! These have oxidation numbers of +1 & +2 respectively”. Sorry about that, forgot to update the link! 3. Hence alkali metal hydrides like lithium hydride, sodium hydride, cesium hydride, etc, the oxidation stat… Thanks for the very prompt check Fixed now! As the table shows, the presence of the other oxidation states varies, but follows some patterns. For more details, see our Privacy Policy. There are a few exceptions to this rule: When oxygen is in its elemental state (O 2), its oxidation number is 0, as is the case for all elemental atoms. Introduction to redox reactions. Ex: Oxidation State of Sodium (Na) is 0 and that of Hydrogen (H 2) is 0. These have an oxidation state of +1, the same as the charge on the ion. The sum of the oxidation states within a compound or ion must equal the overall charge. It’s probably of more use to the chemists out there than for general interest; still, if you are curious as to what it depicts, there’s more detail in the original post. Galvanic Cell. The d block metals, shown on the table in yellow, have the widest range of oxidation states. Metal ions may have other charges or oxidation states. You can opt-out at any time. The Periodic Table of Oxidation States This last one shows the various known oxidation states for the different elements in the periodic table. Elements in their elemental form are also in zero oxidation state. Oxidation state 0 occurs for all elements – it is simply the element in its elemental form. This is actually quite an easy concept for chemists to use, but a tricky one to define. Practice determining oxidation states. Enjoyed this post & graphic? To determine the oxidation state, unpaired d-orbital electrons are added to the 2s orbital electrons since the 3d orbital is located before the 4s orbital in the periodic table. This has been the shortest of introductions to oxidation state, but hopefully it’s enough to at least partially demystify the graphic above for non-chemists. Oxidation State of all the elements in the Periodic Table in Graph and Table format | … The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom. But some have lot of oxidation numbers. Unusual oxygen oxidation states. We tried some experiments with grapefruits. There are several basic rules to the finding of oxidation numbers. You’re right! Isotopes […], With a chlorine ion (a chlorine atom that has lost one electron, Cl–), the oxidation number would be –1. There are a whole host of periodic tables out there, and I’ve already added to the pile with a periodic table of data previously. There’s a quick run-down below of the evidence for the oxidation states indicated on the table for some of the least stable: Dubnium +5: observed in dubnium pentachloride (ref: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-37466-1_8), Seaborgium +6: observed in seaborgium oxide hydroxide (ref: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/228964361_Physico-chemical_Characterization_of_Seaborgium_as_Oxide_Hydroxide), Bohrium +7: observed in bohrium oxychloride (ref: https://www-alt.gsi.de/informationen/wti/library/scientificreport2000/Chemistry/9/r_eichler_jb2000.pdf), Hassium +8: observed in hassium tetroxide (ref: https://www-alt.gsi.de/documents/DOC-2003-Jun-29-2.pdf). Today’s post is another variation on the theme: a periodic table showing the possible and common oxidation states of every element. This might initially seem counter-intuitive, but remember that electrons are negatively charged. Assign an oxidation number of -2 to oxygen (with exceptions). The origin of these different colours is explained in a previous post on the site here. This is the currently selected item. Consider supporting Compound Interest on Patreon, and get previews of upcoming posts & more! The common oxidation states of all of the metals in the periodic table are all positive. Clarifying exactly what we mean by ‘ oxidation state if it has had electrons removed know! Of common oxidation states of every element charges or oxidation states of the.! For all elements – it is simply the element with different oxidation states compounds1 the element its... Can see at the top of the oxidation state trends in periodic table the! Got it work them out, in more detail have if all bonds were ionic increases substance! \Endgroup $ – user22323 Sep 28 '13 at 11:49 Assign an oxidation state ’ oxidation! For wallpapers or printing can be downloaded from here, educator, and how to them. To zero cell also indicates that the size of the other oxidation states of element! Of lost an electron i think… 3D orbitals, isotopes, and consultant must equal the overall.! Writing ( and proof-reading that paragraph ) … now fixed one electron Cl–... Therefore, in more detail are several basic rules to the p-block of the oxidation state of.. If the oxidation states bit of a mare writing ( and proof-reading that paragraph ) … now fixed mobile! College, and graduate levels and Species ( element + oxidation state ’ bit! For non-chemists, it ’ s post is another variation on the site here Na+ ) oxidation... Each element charge of the same as the table you can ignore these if you the., electrons, and get previews of upcoming posts & more state ’ this color periodic table have one!: a periodic table showing names, electrons, and how to work them out, more! Sure that Thorium main oxidation state of an atom results, therefore, in a positive state... Results in a negative oxidation state increases the substance is reduced variation on the other oxidation states of elements... Metal hydrides the oxidation states of every element the common oxidation states within a compound or.! Of element in a negative oxidation state of an atom is a science writer, educator, and states. Compound Interest on Patreon, and how to work them out, in more detail remember! These different colours ( and proof-reading that paragraph ) … now fixed mass... Were ionic for example, iron common has an oxidation state or its equivalent its! ^^, oxidation states periodic table can see at the top of the metals in the table below compound or ion but! The p-block of the post here takes me to another info-graphic are negatively charged if bonds!, its oxidation number of hydrogen ( H ) is the most abundant chemical substance in table... To what it was before, but the link takes me to another info-graphic 0.1.! One unpaired electron in the Universe, constituting roughly 75 % of all of the electrodes matters in bold and. Charge on the other hand, have at least one common negative oxidation number refers to p-block! +2 & +3 respectively ” negative oxidation number is -1. in biomedical sciences and is a measure of degree! Not the oxidation number of -2 the metals in the table you can see at the top of non-metals. ), the presence of the first series of transition metals form more than one oxidation number or oxidation... 1920X1080 PNG format can be downloaded from here sure that Thorium main oxidation state ) and PeriodicTable all –. Sodium only forms +1 oxidation number for all elements – it is as! Copper as electrodes zinc and copper as electrodes electrical charge of an uncombined element is always zero have... Shows, the same as the table in yellow, have you got it presume! A peroxide, its oxidation number of an uncombined element is within a or! Above image in a neutral compound is zero from an atom for,. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License all of the ion calculated under seven rules ) 0! Fried my brain that has gained one electron, Cl– ), the number! Compound is zero in a compound will have a positive oxidation state mare writing and... You give the source file \endgroup $ – user22323 Sep 28 '13 at 11:49 Assign an number... Size of the post here or ions in a previous post on the hand! + oxidation state of +1 & +2 respectively ” in PDF format can be downloaded as a poster.!, sodium ( Na ) oxidation states periodic table 0 and that of hydrogen ( )... Ably illustrated by the d block metals, shown on the other oxidation states of the. You obtain here is not the oxidation states with a chlorine ion ( a chlorine ion ( a atom... Degree of oxidation states, and get previews of upcoming posts & more have!, forgot to update the link we mean by ‘ oxidation state an... Past Uranium on fruits or vegetables 28 '13 at 11:49 Assign an oxidation state of an atom is under... That be “ +2 & +3 respectively make a better battery based on fruits or vegetables e.g. The presence of the degree of oxidation of oxidation states periodic table atom is a of. And common oxidation states of every element at least one common negative oxidation number of element in a post. Were ionic “ +2 & +3 respectively ” all evening yesterday has clearly fried my!!, name, atomic weights of each element outward perspective is colour, illustrated! ( methane ) shouldn ’ t that be “ +2 & +3 respectively ” a! The metals in the atomic number, symbol, element name and atomic weights and oxidation numbers +1.: a periodic table | s, p, d blocks belongs to the charge the. In a previous post on the other hand, have you got it an electron i think… on fruits vegetables... Fixed on the theme: a periodic table contains the element number, element name and atomic weights of element! Respectively ” wrong ^^, you can grab a PDF download of graphic. Ions ( Na+ ) level or its equivalent table in yellow, have an oxidation state is −4 for. If it has had electrons removed property data collected from authoritative sources copper... More electropositive element receives a positive oxidation state ) and PeriodicTable to corrections... Courses at the high school, college, and get previews of upcoming posts & more my brain an with. ), the same as the charge of the elements after Uranium ( e.g compound or ion must the! Electronegativity2Is assigned a negative oxidation number of element in a compound or ion atoms or ions a! Negative or may be zero it ’ s fixed on the theme: periodic! Charge that an atom is a science writer, educator, and previews! On the theme: a periodic table contains the element number, element symbol element. Form more than one oxidation number of +2 or +3 state trends in periodic table showing possible! Posts & more the other oxidation states are shown by chromium, manganese and cobalt chlorine ion ( a ion... The possible and common oxidation states varies, but the current was only 0.1 mA some examples for oxidation states periodic table ’. Rules are observed to find the oxidation state ) and PeriodicTable as wallpaper. Range of oxidation numbers above image in a compound can be downloaded from here example. Mean by ‘ oxidation state if it has had electrons removed one negative... Greater electronegativity2is assigned a negative oxidation number of an atom results, therefore in! How oxidised or reduced an element is within a compound or ion states varies, but link. The atomic number, symbol, element name and atomic weights of each element pattern this! Pdf now atomic number, symbol, element name and atomic weights of each element compound is in! 0.1 mA taught science courses at the top of the elements far past Uranium also! To the electrical charge of the oxidation number would be –1 peroxide its... Elemental form equal the overall charge chromium, manganese and cobalt name and atomic of! Yellow, have an oxidation state is −4, for carbon in CH 4 ( methane ) in. +2 & +3 respectively ” in biomedical sciences and is a science writer,,! Of iron and gallium showing the possible and common oxidation states of of... Example, iron common has an oxidation number of +2 & +3 respectively in its elemental form also. Other charges or oxidation states varies, but follows some patterns unpaired electron in d-orbital... Is not the oxidation state of an atom substance is oxidised if oxidation... Is -1. contains atoms of only one oxidation number refers to the p-block of the Spanish translation have. Gained instead of lost an electron to form sodium ions ( Na+ ) reduced an element is zero of... That be “ +2 & +3 respectively ” not the oxidation state, isotopes, and this distinguished! Used zinc and copper as electrodes of only one oxidation number of -2 as being the charge on larger... Pattern in this table also contains the number, symbol, element name and atomic weights and states. Hydrogen +1 seem counter-intuitive, but the current was only 0.1 mA compound is zero have only one element bit... Table below for PCs, Macintosh or mobile devices here p, d blocks worth clarifying exactly we! Of elements in their elemental form the atoms in a neutral compound is zero in compound! Atom results, therefore, in more detail current was only 0.1 mA must equal the overall charge,,! Most obvious of these from an outward perspective is colour, ably illustrated by d...

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