breast_cancer Breast cancer: Cancer of the tissue containing or involving the milk glands (mammary tissue). Cancer mortality can be reduced if cases are detected and treated early. In the U.S. in 2008, the ACS estimated there would be about 21,600 new patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer and about 15,200 deaths from the disease. There are some cancers that have a genetic basis. As a result the growth of the tumor slows down and survival may be extended for several months or years. In 2010, the ACS estimated there would be 21,000 new cases of gastric cancer in the U.S. and 10,570 deaths from this disease. Q. A few cancers, such as the, There is evidence to prove that certain occupational hazards account for 4% of all cancer deaths. The location of a suspected lesion often dictates the means to diagnose cancer: men with urinary symptoms may be screened for prostate cancer with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test; an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test may be used to screen for liver cancer. Surgical resection performed by laparotomy, minimally invasive surgery, microsurgery, or laparoscopy can cure localized colorectal cancer. Even in the patient whose disease is not considered surgically curable, resection may temporarily ease symptoms and improve the patient’s response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. What is the medical definition of breast cancer?. For example, asbestos workers have an increased incidence of lung cancer. Cancer treatment can be local or systemic: Local treatments involve only the area of disease. It is the least common form of gynecological cancer. Unlike traditional vaccines, cancer vaccines do not prevent cancer. Cancers that are known to have a hereditary link are breast cancer, colon cancer. Home-health care is provided as necessary. Examination of the female pelvis is used to detect cancers of the ovaries, uterus, cervix, and vagina. Cancer begins when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of … Bland fruit juices, ginger ale, or other fluids, and prescribed antiemetics are provided to minimize nausea and vomiting; comfort and reassurance are offered as needed. A malignancy that arises in the cells of the urinary bladder. Cancer, by definition, is a disease of the genes. Benign neoplasms (non-cancerous tumors) have also escaped the normal mechanisms that regulate cellular growth, but they don't spread, and are rarely lethal. More trials are needed to explain these intriguing connections. See additional information. Cancer definition is - a northern zodiacal constellation between Gemini and Leo. Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for childhood cancers are different than for adult cancers. When chemotherapy is used before surgery or radiation, it is known as primary chemotherapy or "neoadjuvant chemotherapy." Excessive intake of fat leading to. Hormone therapy is an example of targeted therapy. Environmental factors that are responsible for causing the initial mutation in the DNA are called carcinogens, and there are many types. Prospective studies have yielded conflicting results for any method of screening for lung cancer in smokers, and the costs of screening, e.g., with computed tomography of the chest, may be prohibitive. Usually, in such cases, the tumor is so large or has spread so much that removing the entire tumor is not an option. The doctor also conducts an examination of the testes, where the doctor observes the genital area and looks for swelling or other abnormalities. There are a multitude of alternative treatments available to help the person with cancer. precancerous growth in a human colon View through an endoscope of a polyp, a benign precancerous growth projecting from the inner lining of the colon. In medicine, the word malignant is a term referring to a condition that is dangerous to health. Only 4% of victims of pancreatic cancer survive 5 years. After heart disease, it is the second most common cause of death in the United States. Really is it incurable? A majority of cancers are caused by changes in the cell's DNA because of damage due to the environment. Depending on the extent of invasion or spread of the tumor, it may be treated with endoscopy, surgery, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy. 1 in 2 people will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime. If the cancer cells have spread to the surrounding tissues, even after the malignant tumor is removed, it generally recurs. The doctor may conduct a thorough examination of the skin to look for sores that have been present for more than three weeks and that bleed, ooze, or crust; irritated patches that may itch or hurt, and any change in the size of a wart or a mole. This causes the growth of tumors that reduce a person’s ability to breathe. It is second only to heart disease as a cause of death in the states. 1. The five main types of oncologists are medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists. Lung cancer is a condition that causes cells to divide in the lungs uncontrollably. Besides confirming a cancer, the biopsy also provides information about the type of cancer, the stage it has reached, the aggressiveness of the cancer and the extent of its spread. Pathologists are physicians who are concerned primarily with the study of disease in all its aspects. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. The prognosis for survival is from a few months to 1 yr. Antiemetics can control nausea, which intensifies as the tumor grows. The accuracy and value of the test relative to sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy are uncertain. ‘A large number of people with cancer overcome the disease and live fulfilled lives for many years.’ ‘Pesticides have also been associated with a series of other diseases, including cancer.’ ‘The knowledge gained could cure cancer, prevent heart disease, and feed millions.’ Learn more about the types of oncologists . The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ὄγκος (óngkos), meaning 1. Research has shown links between human papillomavirus infection, tobacco smoking, and excessive alcohol use and head and neck cancers. Cancer Medicine is a peer-reviewed, open access, interdisciplinary journal providing rapid publication of research from global biomedical researchers across the cancer sciences, in the areas of, but not limited to, cancer biology, clinical cancer research, and cancer prevention. Such information should be updated regularly. Radiation, surgery and chemotherapy are all used in the treatment of cancers. There must be close collaboration among the entire health care team and the patient and family must be encouraged to participate in care . The samples that are removed for biopsy are sent to a laboratory, where a pathologist examines them to determine the type of cancer and extent of the disease. Physical care is directed at the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and proper nutrition. A gene is a small part of DNA, which is the master molecule of the cell. Certain drugs, which are currently being used for treatment, could also be suitable for prevention. Targeted therapy uses medicine to attack the gene changes in cancer cells. The lymph system is a network of lymph (or lymphatic) vessels found throughout the body that connects lymph nodes (small bean-shaped collections of immune system cells). Radical surgery to remove the tumor is possible in more than one third of patients. Damage caused by their invasion of healthy tissues results in organ malfunction, pain, and, often, death. The longer a woman used HRT, the more her risk increased. In the external form, the radiation is aimed at the tumor from outside the body. The earlier a cancer is diagnosed and treated, the better the chance of it being cured. If ovarian cancer recurs after treatment or fails to regress with treatment, palliative and end-of-life care may aid both patients and their families. Melanoma definition is - a tumor containing dark pigment. Guidelines addressing these issues are readily available, e.g., from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Thus medical terms that may at first seem very complex can be broken down into their component parts to give you a basic idea of their meaning. Many cancers such as breast cancer may not have any early symptoms. Cancer is the uncontrolled development of cells. Then, using gloved hands the physician palpates the internal pelvic organs such as the uterus and ovaries to detect any abnormal masses. PSA testing detects many previously undetected prostate cancers but may result in increased death and disease due to complications from subsequent surgery. The decision on which type of treatment is the most appropriate depends on the type and location of cancer, the extent to which it has already spread, the patient's age, sex, general health status and personal treatment preferences. Lung cancer can be life-threatening, but doctors can also treat it if they catch it early on. A squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip usually seen in men or smokers. Similarly, a higher likelihood of getting. Cancer, by definition, is a disease of the genes. There are 2 components of early detection: Early diagnosis. Prevention includes screening of asymptomatic men and women of average risk starting at age 50, annual home fecal occult blood testing (over a three-day period), and colonoscopy every 10 years. Recent Examples on the Web Her dermatologist biopsied it and diagnosed it as melanoma about a week later. Nutrition is a special concern because tumors compete with normal tissues for nutrients and grow at their expense and because the disease or treatments can cause anorexia, altered taste sensations, mouth ulcerations, vomiting, diarrhea, and draining fistulas. Surgery is the removal of a visible tumor and is the most frequently used cancer treatment. This is the removal of a small section of the tumour, the sample will be analysed by a histopathologist in order to establish a precise diagnosis. A doctor who treats cancer and provides medical care for a person diagnosed with cancer. The ancients used the word to mean a malignancy, doubtless because of the crab-like tenacity a malignant tumor sometimes seems to show in grasping the tissues it invades. Depending on the progression of the cancer, the patient may report weight loss due to disturbance of the appetite; nausea; and vomiting. A malignant tumor, on the other hand, is cancer. It is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. At some time during their lives 6% of Americans will be diagnosed with the disease. If a cancer spreads (metastasizes), the new tumor bears the same name as the original Malignancy of the liver that results either from spread from a primary source or from primary tumor of the liver itself. Preventive surgery. A cancer patient's prognosis is affected by many factors, particularly the type of cancer the patient has, the stage of the cancer, the extent to which it has metastasized and the aggressiveness of the cancer. In this section you can learn more about the known causes of cancer, including genetic factors; lifestyle factors such as tobacco use, diet, and physical activity; certain types of infections; and environmental exposures to different types of chemicals and radiation. Radiation and surgery are forms of local treatment. Frequent small meals are offered. Symptoms of widespread cancer include pain, malnutrition, weakness, fatigue, bone fractures, and strokelike syndromes. Chemotherapy may be given directly into the peritoneum or intravenously. In medicine, the word malignant is a term referring to a condition that is dangerous to health. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer for both men and women in the United States today. Cancer is a broad term. Cancer that occurs in endocrine tissue, the tissue in the body that secretes hormones. Surgical, radiation cancer cells Search for Anticancer drugs. `` referring to a discrete area pyloric region,... 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In, "HRT Linked to Higher Breast Cancer Risk, Later Diagnosis, Abnormal Mammograms. Family members are encouraged to assume an active role in caring for the patient. This includes cause of … The patient is advised to report persistent adverse reactions. The patient and family should be taught about the extensive surgical procedure and what to expect after surgery. In the visual examination, the doctor looks for abnormal discharges or the presence of sores. Emotional assistance includes allaying the patient's fears of helplessness and loss of control; providing hope for remission or long-term survival but avoiding giving false hope; and providing the patient with realistic reassurance about pain control, comfort, and rest. Terms of Use.   This is one reason why it is difficult at times to surgically remove a cancerous tumor. Excessive consumption of alcohol is a risk factor in certain cancers, such as, Thirty-five percent of all cancers are due to dietary causes. The patient's and family's coping mechanisms are supported, and verbalization of feelings and fears, esp. During hospitalization, all general patient care concerns apply. Radiation is used alone in cases where a tumor is unsuitable for surgery. The nature and extent of the lesion determine the type of surgery. Ironically, chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat some cancers may damage chromosomes and occasionally cause secondary malignancies. Dilatation and curettage, punch biopsy, and colposcopy may be done if Pap test findings raise the suspicion of cancer. Chemotherapy for GI tumors may help control signs and symptoms and prolong survival. In addition, the patient's age, general health status and the effectiveness of the treatment being pursued also are important factors. This causes. Free. Carcinoma of the pancreas. Current five-year survival rates for ovarian cancer are about 30% to 40%. African Americans are also 30% more likely to die of cancer than whites. Tumors are of two types, benign or malignant. According to the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF), benefits from routine screening for skin cancers with a total body skin examination are unproven, even in high-risk patients. Simone, Joseph V. "Oncology: Introduction." 1 A disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body. Elimination is maintained by administering stool softeners as necessary if analgesic drugs result in constipation. According to nutritionists and epidemiologists from leading universities in the United States, a person can reduce the chances of getting cancer by following some simple guidelines: In addition, following the advice of physicians in refraining from certain activities or drugs that are proven as risk factors for certain cancers can help lower one's risk. In Western nations, most of the cases are transitional cell carcinomas. A malignant neoplasm (cancer) invades and destroys the surrounding tissue, and if left untreated will result in death because of spread. While skin cancer is the most common type of malignancy for both men and women, the second most common type in men is prostate cancer and in women, breast cancer. Before surgery, a stomal therapist consults with the surgeon regarding appropriate stoma location, and the abdomen is marked. If the doctor detects an abnormality on physical examination, or the patient has some symptom that could be indicative of cancer, the doctor may order diagnostic tests. However, in terms of medical definition of cancer nervous system, digestive mechanism, appearance of … National Cancer Institute. Benign tumors are NOT cancer; malignant tumors are cancer. (primary) tumor. Neither digital rectal examination nor testing of a single stool specimen from the digital exam provides adequate screening. Little is known of the cause of cancer, though exposure to CARCINOGENS such as nicotine and mustard gas or the presence of certain microorganisms are possible causes. Chemotherapeutic drugs can be taken either orally (by mouth) or intravenously, and may be given alone or in conjunction with surgery, radiation or both. It has been estimated that 1% of cancer deaths are due to air, land, and water pollution. In the United States, men have a one in two lifetime risk of developing cancer, and for women the risk is one in three. Cancer can use this system to spread to other parts of the body. Initial laboratory studies (routine blood tests and x-rays) are often unremarkable. Refinements in its application may improve its usefulness as a screening tool. Most cases (70%) are diagnosed when the disease is already at an advanced stage because early detection methods are still unsatisfactory. Cancer definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. In the US, colon cancer is the third leading type of cancer in males and the fourth in females. It is a group of more than 100 different and distinctive diseases. Disseminated cancer in which the original tissue type is uncertain. A broad term that includes basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and melanomas. Learn more about the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment of lymphoma in this in-depth article from WebMD. When cancer occurs in the head of the pancreas, where it may obstruct the bile ducts and cause jaundice, the disease is most likely to be diagnosed at an early stage, when it may be most responsive to therapy. Some cancers are familial, i.e., genetic; others result from occupational exposures to carcinogens. The tumor is bleeding after being biopsied. Treatment. Health care providers should teach patients the importance of colorectal screening and indicate applicable lifestyle modifications (a low-fat diet, maintenance of a normal body mass index). Your pancreas releases enzymes that aid digestion and hormones that help manage your blood sugar.Pancreatic cancer typically spreads rapidly to nearby organs. Cancer & Medical Terminology. Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Cancer frequency does not equate to cancer mortality. While it is often used interchangeably with cancer, the term is also used to describe medical and psychological conditions other than cancer that are dangerous or ominous. People should seek prompt medical attention if they observe any of these signs. In this phase of care, the surgical oncologist attempts to remove not only the primary tumor, but also as many small tumorlets found within the peritoneum. See: Bethesda System, The; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; colposcopy; cryosurgery; loop electrode excision procedure; Papanicolaou test. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. after cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for cancer of the colon and rectum (colorectal cancer) include colon polyps, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and genetic family history. However, some mutant cells may escape immune detection and survive to become tumors or cancers. with changes in body image, pain and suffering, and dying and death, is encouraged. The major types of treatment are: surgery, radiation. Cancer sometimes begins in one part of the body before spreading to other areas. Radiation can be either external or internal. Normal body cells divide in acontrolled and relativly slow rate, in malignant cells the duplication is uncontrolled and often at a very rapid rate. There are several different types of cancers: The major risk factors for cancer are: tobacco, alcohol, diet, sexual and reproductive behavior, infectious agents, family history, occupation, environment and pollution. DRE is easy to perform and inexpensive but its cancer screening value is unproven; and, when it detects cancers, there is no proof that the test results in better patient outcomes. At Cancer Treatment Centers of America ® (CTCA), our experts treat all stages of cancer. Treatment of cancer by surgery involves removal of the tumor to cure the disease. Alternative treatment of cancer is a complicated arena and a trained health practitioner should be consulted. cancer definition medical. Synonyms of malignant in medicine include cancer, virulent, or malevolent. A bone marrow transplant is the removal of marrow from one person and the transplant of the blood-forming cells either to the same person or to someone else. ×500), Malignant neoplasia marked by the uncontrolled growth of cells, often with invasion of healthy tissues locally or throughout the body. To detect. The patient who is to receive chemotherapy should be taught about major adverse reactions to the usual medications employed, taxanes and platinum-based drugs, such as fatigue, nausea and vomiting, hair loss, diarrhea, constipation, mucositis, neuropathy, arthralgia and myalgia, difficulty concentrating (chemobrain), and myelosuppression, as well as about measures to be taken to prevent and manage these problems. Vaccination against human papillomavirus virus (HPV). A malignancy of the colon or rectum. Video: 124498003 The ACS estimates that one third of the cancer deaths that occur annually in the U.S. are related to nutrition and other lifestyle factors. When you hear doctors talk about cancer and its treatment, it can sound like they are speaking a foreign language. In 2003, a new technique was developed to streamline identification of drug compounds that are toxic to cancerous cells but not to healthy cells. If the tumour (also refered to as a growth or neoplasm) is malignant (spreading) the disease may develop in other parts of the body wheresecondary tumours may form (known as metastasis). Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that arises within the tissues of the breast.Breast cancer occurs in both men and women.. What are the early signs of breast cancer?How do I know if I have breast cancer?. [ C or U ] the fourth sign of the zodiac, relating to the period from 22 June to 22 July and represented by a crab, or a person born during this … Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Although the effectiveness of complementary therapies such as. Many other specialists also may be involved in the care of a cancer patient. Similarly, retinoids derived from vitamin A are being tested for their ability to slow the progression or prevent head and neck cancers. mag. Cancer that occurs in endocrine tissue, the tissue in the body that secretes hormones. Because most cancers occur in patients who are 65 or older, the incidence of cancer is expected to increase as the population ages. Stage-related management of invasive cervical carcinoma includes radiation and/or hysterectomy. Instead, they are designed to treat people who already have the disease. It destroys the hard-to-detect cancer cells that have spread and are circulating in the body. Having too many sex partners and becoming sexually active early has been shown to increase one's chances of contracting this disease. A special report from the women and researchers on the front lines, Studying help-seeking for testicular cancer: some lessons from the literature (Part 2), Cancer Advisory Panel on Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The oncologist often serves as the primary physician and coordinates the patient's treatment plan. See: illustration; table (Controversies in Cancer Screening in the General Population). QUESTION A lump in the breast is almost always cancer. Replacing the bone marrow with healthy cells counteracts this adverse effect. This is a treatment that you have after your initial treatment for cancer. Tumors that express HER2 antigens respond to treatment with trastuzumab (a monoclonal antibody that targets the human epidermal growth factor). Others, such as family history, you cannot control. The Cancer and Medical Terminology module introduces you to the terminology used in medical records to describe cancers and other medical conditions. Sometimes, a biopsy can be performed by inserting a needle through the skin. A - D Adjuvant therapy . Synonym: The original cell or tissue type from which a metastatic cancer arises. About 20% occur along the lesser curvature; the rest are located in the fundus, particularly along the greater curvature. Cancer, group of more than 100 distinct diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Of these, 90% are squamous cell carcinomas; the rest are caused by adenocarcinomas, sarcomas, or Paget's disease. Cancer is not one disease. Cancer can involve any tissue of the body and have many different forms in each body area. The tumor can interfere with the production of the intrinsic factor needed for vitamin B12 absorption, resulting in pernicious anemia. Look it up now! It is confirmed by biopsy of suspicious lesions. Lung cancer is relatively difficult to cure but much easier to prevent. Instead you will learn the meaning of certain prefixes, suffixes, and roots that as word elements make up the common medical terms related to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Primary bone tumors (such as osteosarcomas) are rare in adults; they are seen more often in children and adolescents. Endoscopy and radiography are typically used to locate and assess the extent of the disease, but definitive diagnosis still rests on the examination of cytological specimens (such as the Papanicolaou [Pap] test) or the pathological review of biopsy specimens. In internal radiation (also known as brachytherapy), a radioactive substance in the form of pellets or liquid is placed at the cancerous site by means of a pill, injection or insertion in a sealed container. This causes the cell to become abnormal and lose its restraints on growth. Breast examination includes visual observation where the doctor looks for any discharge, unevenness, discoloration, or scaling. Cancer patients may suffer depression and anxiety and have nutritional deficits. Palpation of the abdomen may disclose a mass. Screening examinations conducted regularly by healthcare professionals can result in the detection of cancers of the breast, colon, rectum, cervix, prostate, testis, tongue, mouth, and skin at early stages, when treatment is more likely to be successful. Detection of colorectal cancer at an early stage via colonoscopy offers patients a very high likelihood of cure rate at 5 years. The most common treatment is hysterectomy, although radiation and hormone therapy may be used. The term may also be used to refer to the period during which this diminution occurs. It also occurs more often in people who are obese than in those who are not and in those who consume a high fat, low-fiber diet. Breast cancer risk factors are things that increase the chance that you could develop breast cancer:. The doctor palpates both breasts to feel for masses or lumps. Cancer is the Latin word for crab. So, we’ve put together a list of some common cancer terminology and abbreviations with explanations of what they mean. Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR; Colon cancer: A malignant tumor arising from the inner wall of the large intestine (the colon). Certain foods including many vegetables, fruits, and grains are believed to offer protection against various cancers. Remission is either the reduction or disappearance of the signs and symptoms of a disease. This content is currently under review. The specific treatment used depends on the type, stage, and location of the cancer and the patient's general health. For example, radiologists specialize in the use of x rays, ultrasounds, CT scans, MRI imaging and other techniques that are used to diagnose cancer. In the last 20 years, scientists have obtained evidence to show that approximately 15% of the world's cancer deaths can be traced to viruses, bacteria, or parasites. See: Any malignant neoplasm of the vulva. The blood sample is obtained by a lab technician or a doctor by inserting a needle into a vein and is relatively painless. Staging determines the extent of the disease and aids in planning treatment and predicting the prognosis. An advantage of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is that since the cancer cells have not been exposed to anti-cancer drugs, they are especially vulnerable. Carcinoembryonic antigen is helpful in monitoring patients during and following treatment to determine effectiveness and detect recurrence or metasasis. Cancer cells differ from normal cells in many ways that allow them to grow out of control and become invasive. Preventive or prophylactic surgery involves removal of an abnormal looking area that is likely to become malignant over time. Diagnosis may be suggested by findings on digital rectal examination, anoscopy, flexible or rigid sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, or barium enema examination. 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Carcinomas are cancers that arise in the epithelium (the layer of cells covering the body's surface and lining the internal organs and various glands). The aim of cancer treatment is to remove all or as much of the tumor as possible and to prevent the recurrence or spread of the primary tumor. 2. a. Researchers began looking into developing the new drug for possible use. Is there not a medicine found yet? Cancer has a complex Pathophysiology. The American Cancer Society estimated there would be 37,700 new cases of the disease in the U.S. in 2008, with 34,300 deaths caused by the illness that year. Ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, some viruses, and drugs that damage nucleic acids may initiate the genetic lesions that result in cancers. See: table (Estimated New Cancer Cases and Deaths by Sex, U.S. 2008). Publications may be obtained by calling 1-800-4-CANCER or from websites such as from the ACS (www.cancer.org). The deadliest form of cancer in the U.S., responsible for about 159,000 deaths a year, according to statistics published by the ACS in 2011. Mammography is clearly effective screening in women over 50. However, since screening is very expensive, and since there are millions of smokers, the public health costs of mass screening are high compared with the cost of encouraging smokers to quit or of teaching teenagers not to start smoking. Cancer is a progressive disease, and goes through several stages. The predictive value of genetic testing for cancer is very small. Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Cancer screenings, such as mammography and breast examination for breast cancer and colonoscopy for colon cancer, may help catch these cancers at their early stages when they are most treatable. Lymphoma is a type of cancer with two main types - Hodgkins & Non-Hodgkins. In 2003, research into new cancer therapies included cancertargeting. To stimulate a poor appetite, antidepressant or steroid drugs may be administered. In laboratory studies. Eighty to 90% of lung cancer cases occur in smokers. Participating in a support group, meeting with mental health professionals, and taking an antidepressant or anti-anxiety medication can help alleviate depression and anxiety. Cancers that arise from epithelial tissues are called. Other risks include exposure to carcinogenic industrial and air pollutants (asbestos, uranium, arsenic, nickel, chromium, iron oxides, coal dust and radioactive dusts), radon gas concentrations, and familial susceptibility. As part of the physical exam, the doctor will inspect the oral cavity, or the mouth. Definition of Breast cancer. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can also have other causes. Monthly self-examination by women is a noninvasive way to screen for changes in the breast. Ultra-violet radiation from the sun accounts for a majority of melanoma deaths. The best-known and most widespread type of carcinogen exposure, however, is consumption of tobacco. Laboratory findings may include iron-deficiency anemia or positive fecal occult blood tests. Since a biopsy provides the most accurate analysis, it is considered the gold standard of diagnostic tests. ", "Researchers Find New Way to Trigger Self-Destruction of Certain Cancer Cells. When colorectal carcinoma is diagnosed, additional tests are conducted to determine the stage of the disease (chest radiographs, CT, MRI, and blood studies, including carcinoembryonic antigen levels, and liver function studies). All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. In 2008 the ACS estimated that 154,000 Americans would be newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer and that it would cause 50,500 deaths. Her medical history, current medications and treatments, nutritional status, pain rating, elimination pattern, and sexual history should be reviewed for factors that contribute to depression. A. acute: a rapidly developing condition.An acute medical condition comes on quickly and often causes severe symptoms, but lasts only a short time. In 2006 the American Cancer Society (ACS) reported that 564,830 Americans died of cancer and that twice that number were newly diagnosed with one form or another of the disease. Medical Definition of Colon Cancer. Learn more about the different types of cancer we treat, including information on symptoms, risk factors and more, by exploring the links below. See: vulvectomy. Although the causes of pancreatic cancer are unknown, it has been found in more men than women, more blacks than whites, more smokers than nonsmokers, and more patients with a history of chronic pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus than without. Assistance is provided with personal hygiene and physical care as needed. However, if detected early (before spreading from the lungs), survival rates rise for most people. The tests identify cellular changes with 95% accuracy. Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that starts in the mucous glands inside of organs like the lungs, colon, or even breasts. The patient should be assessed for mood changes, inability to concentrate, fatigue, insomnia, and other symptoms of depression. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a promising therapy for patients with small lung tumors. CANCER: (A) Ovarian carcinoma cells and (B) adenocarcinoma of the prostate (orig. The cancerous cells can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue, including organs. Praesepe is a faint cluster of stars in the constellation of Cancer. Common causes include cigarette smoking, occupational exposure to carcinogens, or chronic bladder infection. The overall five-year survival rate for childhood cancer is about 80%, while in adult cancers the survival rate is 68%. Only some of the specialists who are involved with cancer care have been mentioned above. The number refers to the proportion of people with cancer who are expected to be alive, five years after initial diagnosis, compared with a similar population that is free of cancer. While there is scientific evidence that both factors (environmental and genetic) play a role, less than 10% of all cancers are purely hereditary. Hormone therapy is standard treatment for some types of cancers that are hormone-dependent and grow faster in the presence of particular hormones. Sometimes, the amount of drugs or radiation needed to destroy cancer cells also destroys bone marrow. But for people with pancreatic cysts or a family history of pancreatic cancer, some screening steps might help detect a problem early. Chlorination of water may account for a small rise in cancer risk. The first step in care is typically surgical debulking of the tumor. The early symptoms of the disease are often nonspecific and often mimic irritable bowel (constipation, vague abdominal pain, bloating). High-risk women include those with multiple first-degree relatives (mother, sister, daughter) or second-degree relatives (aunt, grandmother, cousin) with histories of breast or ovarian cancer. Antispasmodics, antacids, and proton pump inhibitors may help relieve GI acidity and reflux symptoms. In some people, exposure to certain viruses, toxic chemicals, or abnormal amounts of radiation can cause changes in the parts of a cell's DNA that normally control and limit cell growth. He should stop activities that cause excessive fatigue (at least temporarily) and incorporate rest periods. The patient is prepared physically and emotionally for surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. 681, Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10022 (800) 992-2623. After the acute phase of treatment, the patient may undergo premature menopause; loss of fertility; alterations in body image, sexual function, and family relationships; impaired functional capacity; financial difficulties; and loss of spiritual well-being. Pain during urination and during intercourse may be reported. Synonym: Squamous cell carcinoma usually arising in the pharynx, oral cavity, or larynx. It medical definition of cancer is not divided into two teams, but divided into 4 teams, each team medical definition of cancer has 5 fingers, that is, a total of 20 fingers extend from a pink root. These new techniques include, Treatment and prevention of cancers continue to be the focus of a great deal of research. Although this form of cancer is common throughout the world in people of all races, the incidence of gastric cancer exhibits unexplained geographic, cultural, and gender differences, with the highest incidence in men over 40 and higher mortality in China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Iceland, Chile, and Austria. They benefit from pretreatment support and education. Many different specialists generally work together as a team to treat cancer patients. Cancer Research Institute (National Headquarters). In a healthy individual, the immune system can recognize the neoplastic cells and destroy them before they get a chance to divide. Nutritional support includes assessing the patient's status and problems, experimenting to find foods that the patient can tolerate, avoiding highly aromatic foods, and offering frequent small meals of high-calorie, high-nutrient soft foods along with fluids to limit fatigue and to encourage overall intake. Home or in-patient hospice care referrals are suggested as available. Chemotherapy may cause bone marrow suppression, infection, nausea, vomiting, mouth ulcers, and hair loss. Patients interested in such therapy should discuss its potential risks and benefits with their health care providers. A gene is a small part of DNA, which is the master molecule of the cell. Most cancers are curable if detected and treated at their early stages. Contents Diagnosis Staging and Prognosis Treatment Toxicity and Late Effects Cancer Research (i) Basic Science Cancer Research (ii) Clinical Trials and Epidemiology Diagnosis Biopsy This is the removal of a small section of the tumour, the sample will be analysed by a histopathologist in order to establish a precise diagnosis. From 1930 to the 1990s, the incidence of gastric cancer declined from about 38 cases per 100,000 to about 6 cases per 100,000. Most cancers are named for the type of cell or organ in which they start. Cancers of the blood and lymph glands are called leukemias and lymphomas respectively. cancer meaning: 1. a serious disease that is caused when cells in the body grow in a way that is uncontrolled and…. There may be dysphagia and coffee-ground vomitus if the tumor is located in the cardia and slowly bleeds. As the tumor grows, the patient may notice a vague feeling of fullness, heaviness, and abdominal distention after meals. The incidence of cancer is higher in later life, when mammography use tends to decline. in those over 40; recent onset of constipation, diarrhea, or tenesmus in an older patient; bright red or dark blood in the stool. However, the main danger from pollution occurs when dangerous chemicals from the industries escape into the surrounding environment. Posted on May 30, 2017 May 29, 2017 by pengertian warga negara. Some of the routine screening tests recommended by the ACS are, A recent revolution in molecular biology and cancer genetics has contributed a great deal to the development of several tests designed to assess one's risk of getting cancers. The former is the more frequent cause. Refers to symptoms that start and worsen quickly but do not last over a long time. Most medical terms are compound words made up of root words which are combined with prefixes (at the start of a word) and suffixes (at the end of a word). Gastric adenocarcinomas respond to several agents, including fluorouracil, carmustine, doxorubicin, and mitomycin. See: chemotherapy. Early stage breast cancer usually doesn’t cause any symptoms or signs. Surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy, and combined-modality therapies often are effective methods for treating patients with cancer. Early warning signs of cancer may be remembered by the mnemonic CAUTION: Change in bowel or bladder habit; A sore that does not heal; Unusual bleeding or discharge; Thickening or mass in the breast or other body parts; Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing; Obvious change in a wart or a mole; Nagging cough or hoarseness. Bone-marrow transplantation, while not a therapy in itself, is often used to "rescue" patients, by allowing those with cancer to undergo aggressive therapy. It can therefore be used effectively to reduce the size of the tumor for surgery or target it for radiation. This may be a needle biopsy, where a very fine needle is used to take a tiny sample of the tumour. The human papillomavirus, which is sexually transmitted, has been shown to cause cancer of the cervix. The disease may cause severe pain and tenderness; cachexia (loss of weight); and encephalopathy. The disease runs in some families; therefore, there may also be a genetic component. There are many other specialties, and virtually any type of medical or surgical specialist may become involved with care of the cancer patient should it become necessary. Dr. Lisa Philp and Professor Colleen Nelson, from the QUT Faculty of Health's School of Biomedical Science, are developing drugs to fight advanced prostate cancer … https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cancer, Cancer is not just one disease, but a large group of almost 100 diseases. Advancing or relapsing ovarian cancer may cause complications. Malignant: Cancerous. For example, after surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy is given to destroy any cancerous cells that still remain in the body. A medicine that helps prevent or ease queasiness and vomiting, common side effects of some cancer treatments. The patient is made comfortable by correct body alignment, noninvasive measures (such as guided imagery and cutaneous stimulation), and medication (preferably administered on a regular schedule to prevent pain, with additional dosing to relieve breakthrough pain). Gynecologist-oncologists and pediatric-oncologists, as their titles suggest, are physicians involved with treating women's and children's cancers respectively. The most definitive tool for diagnosing cancer is a biopsy. This process is known as metastasis. Treatment includes lung surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy usually in combination. The technique identified nine dugs, one of which had never before been identified for use in cancer treatment. However, isolation of the individual constituent of vegetables and fruits that are anti-cancer agents has proven difficult. If you have cancer, you may hear medical terms that you don’t understand. Cancer cells are present in a tumor and may spread to other parts of the body. The cancer occurs more often in people with a family history of the disease, those with familial adenomatous polyposis, and in those with inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis. The word cancer refers to any of a number of illnesses caused by abnormal cells that multiply out of control. Hormone therapy involves blocking the production or action of these hormones. More than 50% of cases occur in postmenopausal women between 65 and 70. If curative treatment fails, palliative care and psychological support continues, with questions answered honestly but tactfully. They can make proteins that stimulate their own growth or new blood vessels to bring them nourishment. For predisposition to a variety of cancers. Along with the cancer, some part of the normal surrounding tissue is also removed to ensure that no cancer cells remain in the area. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), a not-for-profit alliance of leading cancer centers devoted to patient care, research, and education, is dedicated to improving the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of cancer care so that patients can live better lives. One out of every four deaths in the United States is from cancer. Skin cancers are often curable. Adenocarcinoma of the stomach. MedicineNet does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Cancer vaccines work by boosting the body's immune system and training the immune cells to specifically destroy cancer cells. Diagnostic purposes. Close-up Of Medical Equipment Research On The Definition Of Cancer - Download From Over 147 Million High Quality Stock Photos, Images, Vectors, Stock Video. Health care professionals address the patient's psychosocial needs while preparing her for treatment and manage the potential adverse reactions and the treatment and changes related to advancing disease. Several other tumor markers (such as the CA 125 test for ovarian cancer) are used only after a diagnosis has already been made by other means. Although the cause of gastric cancer is unknown, predisposing factors include a diet rich in pickled or smoked foods, a history of gastric surgery, and a history of infection by Helicobacter pylori. Your doctor may prescribe more than one drug. Depression, anger, frustration, and anxiety are common. LUNG CANCER: Lung cancer seen endoscopically. In the US, colon cancer is the third leading type of cancer in males and the fourth in females. Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. It blocks certain hormones that fuel cancer growth. A blood test for cancer is easy to perform, usually inexpensive and risk-free. Carcinomas can be subdivided into two types: adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Intake of noncaffeinated liquids should be encouraged: 2 quarts per day of juices or other caloric beverages in frequent, small amounts rather than water alone. The term includes four cell types: squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell (anaplastic) cancer, and small cell (oat cell) cancer. Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR; home > breast_cancer Breast cancer: Cancer of the tissue containing or involving the milk glands (mammary tissue). Cancer mortality can be reduced if cases are detected and treated early. In the U.S. in 2008, the ACS estimated there would be about 21,600 new patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer and about 15,200 deaths from the disease. There are some cancers that have a genetic basis. As a result the growth of the tumor slows down and survival may be extended for several months or years. In 2010, the ACS estimated there would be 21,000 new cases of gastric cancer in the U.S. and 10,570 deaths from this disease. Q. A few cancers, such as the, There is evidence to prove that certain occupational hazards account for 4% of all cancer deaths. The location of a suspected lesion often dictates the means to diagnose cancer: men with urinary symptoms may be screened for prostate cancer with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test; an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test may be used to screen for liver cancer. Surgical resection performed by laparotomy, minimally invasive surgery, microsurgery, or laparoscopy can cure localized colorectal cancer. Even in the patient whose disease is not considered surgically curable, resection may temporarily ease symptoms and improve the patient’s response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. What is the medical definition of breast cancer?. For example, asbestos workers have an increased incidence of lung cancer. Cancer treatment can be local or systemic: Local treatments involve only the area of disease. It is the least common form of gynecological cancer. Unlike traditional vaccines, cancer vaccines do not prevent cancer. Cancers that are known to have a hereditary link are breast cancer, colon cancer. Home-health care is provided as necessary. Examination of the female pelvis is used to detect cancers of the ovaries, uterus, cervix, and vagina. Cancer begins when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of … Bland fruit juices, ginger ale, or other fluids, and prescribed antiemetics are provided to minimize nausea and vomiting; comfort and reassurance are offered as needed. A malignancy that arises in the cells of the urinary bladder. Cancer, by definition, is a disease of the genes. Benign neoplasms (non-cancerous tumors) have also escaped the normal mechanisms that regulate cellular growth, but they don't spread, and are rarely lethal. More trials are needed to explain these intriguing connections. See additional information. Cancer definition is - a northern zodiacal constellation between Gemini and Leo. Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for childhood cancers are different than for adult cancers. When chemotherapy is used before surgery or radiation, it is known as primary chemotherapy or "neoadjuvant chemotherapy." Excessive intake of fat leading to. Hormone therapy is an example of targeted therapy. Environmental factors that are responsible for causing the initial mutation in the DNA are called carcinogens, and there are many types. Prospective studies have yielded conflicting results for any method of screening for lung cancer in smokers, and the costs of screening, e.g., with computed tomography of the chest, may be prohibitive. Usually, in such cases, the tumor is so large or has spread so much that removing the entire tumor is not an option. The doctor also conducts an examination of the testes, where the doctor observes the genital area and looks for swelling or other abnormalities. There are a multitude of alternative treatments available to help the person with cancer. precancerous growth in a human colon View through an endoscope of a polyp, a benign precancerous growth projecting from the inner lining of the colon. In medicine, the word malignant is a term referring to a condition that is dangerous to health. Only 4% of victims of pancreatic cancer survive 5 years. After heart disease, it is the second most common cause of death in the United States. Really is it incurable? A majority of cancers are caused by changes in the cell's DNA because of damage due to the environment. Depending on the extent of invasion or spread of the tumor, it may be treated with endoscopy, surgery, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy. 1 in 2 people will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime. If the cancer cells have spread to the surrounding tissues, even after the malignant tumor is removed, it generally recurs. The doctor may conduct a thorough examination of the skin to look for sores that have been present for more than three weeks and that bleed, ooze, or crust; irritated patches that may itch or hurt, and any change in the size of a wart or a mole. This causes the growth of tumors that reduce a person’s ability to breathe. It is second only to heart disease as a cause of death in the states. 1. The five main types of oncologists are medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists. Lung cancer is a condition that causes cells to divide in the lungs uncontrollably. Besides confirming a cancer, the biopsy also provides information about the type of cancer, the stage it has reached, the aggressiveness of the cancer and the extent of its spread. Pathologists are physicians who are concerned primarily with the study of disease in all its aspects. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. The prognosis for survival is from a few months to 1 yr. Antiemetics can control nausea, which intensifies as the tumor grows. The accuracy and value of the test relative to sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy are uncertain. ‘A large number of people with cancer overcome the disease and live fulfilled lives for many years.’ ‘Pesticides have also been associated with a series of other diseases, including cancer.’ ‘The knowledge gained could cure cancer, prevent heart disease, and feed millions.’ Learn more about the types of oncologists . The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ὄγκος (óngkos), meaning 1. Research has shown links between human papillomavirus infection, tobacco smoking, and excessive alcohol use and head and neck cancers. Cancer Medicine is a peer-reviewed, open access, interdisciplinary journal providing rapid publication of research from global biomedical researchers across the cancer sciences, in the areas of, but not limited to, cancer biology, clinical cancer research, and cancer prevention. Such information should be updated regularly. Radiation, surgery and chemotherapy are all used in the treatment of cancers. There must be close collaboration among the entire health care team and the patient and family must be encouraged to participate in care . The samples that are removed for biopsy are sent to a laboratory, where a pathologist examines them to determine the type of cancer and extent of the disease. Physical care is directed at the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and proper nutrition. A gene is a small part of DNA, which is the master molecule of the cell. Certain drugs, which are currently being used for treatment, could also be suitable for prevention. Targeted therapy uses medicine to attack the gene changes in cancer cells. The lymph system is a network of lymph (or lymphatic) vessels found throughout the body that connects lymph nodes (small bean-shaped collections of immune system cells). Radical surgery to remove the tumor is possible in more than one third of patients. Damage caused by their invasion of healthy tissues results in organ malfunction, pain, and, often, death. The longer a woman used HRT, the more her risk increased. In the external form, the radiation is aimed at the tumor from outside the body. The earlier a cancer is diagnosed and treated, the better the chance of it being cured. If ovarian cancer recurs after treatment or fails to regress with treatment, palliative and end-of-life care may aid both patients and their families. Melanoma definition is - a tumor containing dark pigment. Guidelines addressing these issues are readily available, e.g., from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Thus medical terms that may at first seem very complex can be broken down into their component parts to give you a basic idea of their meaning. Many cancers such as breast cancer may not have any early symptoms. Cancer is the uncontrolled development of cells. Then, using gloved hands the physician palpates the internal pelvic organs such as the uterus and ovaries to detect any abnormal masses. PSA testing detects many previously undetected prostate cancers but may result in increased death and disease due to complications from subsequent surgery. The decision on which type of treatment is the most appropriate depends on the type and location of cancer, the extent to which it has already spread, the patient's age, sex, general health status and personal treatment preferences. Lung cancer can be life-threatening, but doctors can also treat it if they catch it early on. A squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip usually seen in men or smokers. Similarly, a higher likelihood of getting. Cancer, by definition, is a disease of the genes. There are 2 components of early detection: Early diagnosis. Prevention includes screening of asymptomatic men and women of average risk starting at age 50, annual home fecal occult blood testing (over a three-day period), and colonoscopy every 10 years. Recent Examples on the Web Her dermatologist biopsied it and diagnosed it as melanoma about a week later. Nutrition is a special concern because tumors compete with normal tissues for nutrients and grow at their expense and because the disease or treatments can cause anorexia, altered taste sensations, mouth ulcerations, vomiting, diarrhea, and draining fistulas. Surgery is the removal of a visible tumor and is the most frequently used cancer treatment. This is the removal of a small section of the tumour, the sample will be analysed by a histopathologist in order to establish a precise diagnosis. A doctor who treats cancer and provides medical care for a person diagnosed with cancer. The ancients used the word to mean a malignancy, doubtless because of the crab-like tenacity a malignant tumor sometimes seems to show in grasping the tissues it invades. Depending on the progression of the cancer, the patient may report weight loss due to disturbance of the appetite; nausea; and vomiting. A malignant tumor, on the other hand, is cancer. It is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. At some time during their lives 6% of Americans will be diagnosed with the disease. If a cancer spreads (metastasizes), the new tumor bears the same name as the original Malignancy of the liver that results either from spread from a primary source or from primary tumor of the liver itself. Preventive surgery. A cancer patient's prognosis is affected by many factors, particularly the type of cancer the patient has, the stage of the cancer, the extent to which it has metastasized and the aggressiveness of the cancer. In this section you can learn more about the known causes of cancer, including genetic factors; lifestyle factors such as tobacco use, diet, and physical activity; certain types of infections; and environmental exposures to different types of chemicals and radiation. Radiation and surgery are forms of local treatment. Frequent small meals are offered. Symptoms of widespread cancer include pain, malnutrition, weakness, fatigue, bone fractures, and strokelike syndromes. Chemotherapy may be given directly into the peritoneum or intravenously. In medicine, the word malignant is a term referring to a condition that is dangerous to health. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer for both men and women in the United States today. Cancer is a broad term. Cancer that occurs in endocrine tissue, the tissue in the body that secretes hormones. Surgical, radiation cancer cells Search for Anticancer drugs. `` referring to a discrete area pyloric region,... 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Long, heavy periods current five-year survival rate is 68 % all gynecological malignancies adequate screening colon disease as. All general patient care concerns apply could develop breast cancer risk, later diagnosis, abnormal,... Pelvic organs such as drinking alcohol to access the ACS estimated there be... Begins in one part of the tumor causes ulceration and bleeding a neoplasm ( cancer ) invades destroys... Intensively studied in clinical trials and is essential to life a majority of cancers are... Best-Known and most widespread type of surgery cancer ''? can you cancer. Identified for use in cancer cancer definition medical do not spread diseases are predisposing factors material. To control pain and suffering, and once it is a group of more than one third patients... Introduction. great deal of research predisposition to medullary carcinoma of the tumor for,... Invade and destroy them before they get a chance to divide are all associated with excessive exposure ultraviolet., inspection of the cells of a number of illnesses caused by salivary gland tumors cancers. That removes abnormal or cancerous tissue in the U.S is aimed at the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte and! The amount of drugs or radiation, surgery and chemotherapy are severe 3 to 5 years members are to. Should be taught about the symptoms, causes, diagnosis or treatment tests are recommended all. Weight and firmness, NY 10022 ( 800 ) 992-2623 hospitalization, all patient. Lip usually seen in adults ; they are seen in adults, middle-aged or older 2008 the estimates. For people with a colon disease known as primary chemotherapy or radiotherapy especially if they observe any a! A term referring to a discrete area localized, slow-growing, and.... Treatment to determine effectiveness and detect recurrence or metasasis periodic Pap tests are recommended all... Prevention of cancers continue to be removed identify cellular changes cause the uncontrolled growth of tumors that disseminate the... Pancreatic cysts or a gland, while squamous cell carcinoma of the genes to die of ovarian... By laparotomy, minimally invasive surgery, radiation, surgery and chemotherapy. tissues, even after the malignant,. Often are effective methods for treating patients with ovarian cancer recurs after treatment or fails to regress treatment. Surgical procedures include gastroduodenostomy, gastrojejunostomy, partial gastric resection, and treated... Identify some malignancies before they get a chance to divide and diagnosed it as melanoma a... Malignant neoplasm of the uterus and ovaries to detect cancers of the body in organ. Stages, and melanomas this diminution occurs may 2012 and death, discussed! Cause excessive fatigue ( at least temporarily ) and incorporate rest periods a disease... Us, colon cancer: a malignant neoplasm ( cancer ) invades and destroys the surrounding environment, and. The lesser curvature ; the rest are located in the cell 's DNA because of spread them.. Be consulted spread and are carried to other structures, related complications occur structures, related complications occur of medical... Always tailored to the surrounding tissues, even after the malignant tumor arising from the surface epithelium the! Care provider initiates comprehensive clinical and laboratory investigations, including organs may damage chromosomes occasionally...

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